humans are afraid of thousands upon thousands of different things. some fears make sense, while others seem completely irrational (不合理的). some people have such strong reactions to their fears that it interferes with their daily lives. psychologists call these fears "phobias (恐惧症)." to give you an idea, globophobia is the fear of balloons, and pogonophobia is the fear of beards. sound crazy? what about a fear of heights, or a fear of spiders? while these may sound a lot more reasonable, according to psychologists, they all belong to the same category of phobias.
putting aside all the different sorts of phobias, let's think about how they originate. they are, after all, considered a mental condition. data shows that most phobias are developed during childhood, and that it is common for a phobia to be passed down from parent to child. common causes include traumatic (造成心理创伤的) experiences, scary stories and witnessing scary events.
in china, a series of menacing (恐吓的) videos featuring scary doctors or policemen went viral after many parents decided to scare their naughty children into behaving themselves with these videos. while some parents have praised the effectiveness of the videos, others have pointed out that the content is precisely the type that could lead to the development of phobias in children. having a phobia of spiders won't exactly change your life, but how about developing a fear for doctors or the hospital? that would certainly be troublesome.
i have a pair of distant cousins who i spent quite some time with while growing up. as children, we were generally quite fearless, willing to try out just about anything. whenever we got hurt, my mother would just slap on a band-aid (创可贴) and let us keep going. their mother was a little different, often fussing (烦扰) about dirt or bugs. not only that, she also had a severe fear of heights. cut to 15 years later, we have all become adults and my distant cousins have also somehow developed a fear of heights. i am no expert psychologist, but i am pretty sure it had something to do with their mother scaring them about heights.
what bothers me is that my cousins' case isn't special. i have seen plenty of parents scare their children about simple, harmless things like dirt or dogs. these sorts of overprotective actions may very well negatively affect the future of children. so, what are you irrationally afraid of?
1. what do you fear? what do you think are the reasons behind your fear(s)?
2. have your parents ever scared you in order to make you behave? if so, what did they do or say?
1. in china, a series of menacing videos featuring scary doctors or policemen① went viral after many parents decided to scare their naughty children into behaving themselves② with these videos.
① 现在分词短语featuring scary doctors or policemen在句子中作后置定语，对前面的videos进行修饰限定，它相当于that或which引导的非限制性定语从句：that/which feature scary doctors or policemen。
② behave oneself是一个固定短语，意思是“好好表现，使举止规矩”。
2. while① some parents have praised the effectiveness of the videos, others have pointed out that② the content is precisely the type that③ could lead to the development of phobias in children.
e.g. while he loves his students, he is very strict with them.
③ 这个that引导的是定语从句，对先行词the type进行修饰限定。
complete each sentence using one word from the box in its correct form. note that there is one word more than you need and you can use each word only once.
completely reactions reasonable developed fears hurt
1. the way we ________ to those challenges is more important than the events themselves.
2. her father got to the station early last night, for ________ of missing her.
3. the study, which involved 750 patients from the u.k., took seven years to ________.
4. the combination of hot weather and decreased water supplies is ________ many companies.
5. she is happy to see the children are beginning to ________ a sense of responsibility.
key: react fear complete hurting develop
1. 我们认为，这种疾病可能与不规律的饮食习惯有关。(have something to do with)
3. 家长们担心经常玩这类游戏会引发反社会行为。(lead to)
1. we think that this disease may have something to do with irregular eating habits.
2. i can't remember exactly what she said, because i was sleepy at that time.
3. parents worry that playing these games too often can lead to anti-social behavior.
choose the best answer.
1. what does paragraph 2 mainly talk about?
a. the reasons why phobias are developed.
b. when phobias are developed.
c. why phobias are considered mental conditions.
d. how phobias are passed down from parents to children.
2. what's the author's attitude towards those parents who scare their children with menacing videos?
a. positive. b. negative.
c. confused. d. angry.
3. according to the article, which of the following statements is true?
a. many people are born with different kinds of phobias.
b. most people developed phobias because they were scared by their parents in their childhood.
c. phobias have negative effects on a person's life.
d. chinese parents tend to scare children because most chinese children are too naughty.
do you think it is ok for parents to scare their children into behaving? have a discussion with your classmates and share your opinions.
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